Historical Background of 7 Important Discoveries of Chemistry

Historical background of chemistry They come from more than 750,000 years ago with the discovery of fire, metallurgy, alchemy, vitality, chemical elements, and the development of atomic theory.

The knowledge of ancient civilizations to replace matter, the extraction of metals, and the manufacture of alloys, as well as the expansion of glass and ceramics, are derivatives of chemistry.

There are even treatments of fermented fruits for the manufacture of liqueurs, or the extraction of plants for medicinal purposes.

Chemistry has simplified many human functions and improved the quality of life over the centuries.

From the prehistoric era to the present, the formal study of chemistry has allowed us to modify the relationship that existed between nature and man.

7 Major Discoveries of Chemistry in History :

1- The search for fire
790,000 years ago A. Homo erectus was discovered to be a fire caused by the accidental rubbing of some dry branches together.

This chemical reaction, known as combustion, was the first of many to be formed in the future.

The evolutionary character of man brought about experimentation to produce other types of reactions, such as, for example, the basic principles of cooking and pottery.

2- Metallurgy
This was followed by the Copper, Bronze, and Iron Ages. This included the use of native metals as well as the discovery of alloys.

The forging of metals brought with it great practicality in the performance of daily tasks, leading to the development of tools and utensils of high quality and durability.

3- Extremism
The Greek philosopher Democritus was the forerunner of the atomic theory of the universe, also known as atomism.

Through this theory, based only on logical reasoning, it was postulated that everything in the universe is formed by atoms “eternal, indivisible, homogeneous, incompatible and invisible”.

4- Alchemy
It is an ancient practice, popular from Mesopotamia to nineteenth-century Europe, that sought to convert any metal into gold through experiments involving metallurgy, astrology, spirituality, and the arts.

5- vitalism
This philosophical doctrine, extremely popular during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, incorporated the belief that living beings regard their existence as a life force that distinguishes them from non-living things.

This statement was rejected by the German pedagogue and chemist Friedrich Wöhler, who synthesized an organic compound from an inorganic compound. This discovery made him one of the pioneers of organic chemistry.

6- Chemical elements
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev, the prominent Russian chemist, was the creator of the periodic table of elements.

In this table, the chemical elements are arranged in a specific order, according to their atomic number, the configuration of electrons, and the chemistry of each element.

7- Development of atomic theory
Atomic theory, postulated by the British chemist, mathematician, meteorologist, and naturalist John Dalton, contributed significantly to the foundation of modern chemistry.

Thereafter, the twentieth century was filled with important discoveries for the scientific world, such as radiofrequency, by Marie Curie.

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