No one is as distinctive as the father or mother of biology. Which is to be expected. Modern biology has become so vast and complex that if one has made a huge breakthrough in the field of biology, it will probably be a subcategory of biology. (Who is the father of modern biology)
If anyone was to stand out, it would probably be a combination of biology and nanotechnology, which hasn’t happened yet.
What is modern biology?
In the present era, scientists have developed many new methods (techniques) by inventing many new instruments and equipment and doing research about them. Due to this, there has been an unprecedented increase in our knowledge about living beings. In the role of this new knowledge, some unifying principles have been recognized in modern biology which is equally applicable to all organisms.
Some of the main principles are as follows-
1- Concept of Organization: According to this, all the processes related to “life” are based on chemical and physical principles. In other words, bio-actions do not depend on the components of living matter, but on their physical and chemical composition. If we have complete knowledge of this organization, then we can “create the organism” in the test tube.
2- Concept of Biogenesis: Scientists believe that “living matter” originated from the gradual development in the organization of non-living matter. The atmospheric conditions necessary for such “chemical evolution” are no longer on Earth. She was present on the primitive earth billions of years ago. Under the present conditions, new organisms can arise on the earth only from the already existing organisms (Omnis Vivum e Vivo). Whether we consider current viruses to be microscopic organisms or not, their origin can also be from already existing viruses.
3- cell theory – Schleiden and Schwann (Cell Theory- Schleiden and Schwann, 1839): The body of all organisms (animals, plants, bacteria or bacteria, etc.) is made up of one or more cells and the substances produced from them. New cells can only be formed by the division of already existing cells (Omnis cellula e cellular – Rudolph Virchow, 1858). All cells have a basic similarity in their physical structure, chemical composition, and metabolism, and the “life” of any multicellular organism is the sum of the actions of all the cells in its body.
4- Theory of Organic Evolution: There is no new creation of any of the different types of organisms existing in nature today—all of them originated from relatively simple ancestors in creation at some point or the other, or Then, as a result of generation after generation accumulation of changes, has happened.
5- Gene Theory: From generation to generation, how are the characteristics of the parents passed on to the children? For this, Charles Darwin said in his “Theory of Pangenesis” that each part of the parent’s body makes its microscopic model or models which are called ova and sperms. They get absorbed in and pass on to the children. August Weismann (August Weismann, 1886) said in his “Theory of Continuity of Germplasm” that during the embryonic development of the body from the egg to the new organism, at the very beginning the “germplasm” Somatoplasm” “Differs from. This germplasm carries the traits displayed in the offspring from the parents. Now we know clearly that this germplasm is in the form of DNA molecules of chromosomes present in the nucleus of the cells and the tiny blocks of these molecules, called genes, pass on genetic traits from parent to offspring. carry in. The accumulation of small changes in the genes itself leads to the evolution of new species from the same ancestors.
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