The Physical Principles of The Quantum Theory | Quantum Physics

Quantum physics, which became the most mysterious theory of the 20th century, remains a mystery to the scientific community and a mystery to the medical community within the 21st century. However, many theories are correctly explained by this theory.

The Quantum Physics

The Mysterious World of ji theory, full of uncertainties and contradictions, is that it raises its finger on the existence of objective reality, due to which it has been criticized in the scientific community.  Even Albert Einstein, the greatest scientist since Isaac Newton, found it difficult to accept quantum theory.

In the 21st century, scientists are engaged in unraveling the mysterious world of quantum physics, so that it can be applied in the field of advanced technology.  At the same time, scientists are engaged in creating the theory of quantum gravity by combining the theory of quantum physics and general relativity.

Mystery Story idea

Quantum theory was born in the early decades of the 20th century when conventional physics failed to explain many important physical concepts.According to first principles, atoms could vibrate at any frequency  .  Because of this misconception, scientists wrongly concluded that atoms can emit an infinite amount of energy.  Then it was named Ultraviolet Catastrophy.

The year 1900 was an epoch-making year for quantum physics in that Max Planck proposed a solution to the problem that atoms can vibrate only at specific or quantized frequencies.  After this, in 1905, Albert Einstein revealed the mystery of the photoelectric effect.  In the photoelectric effect, light falling on metals emits electrons of specific energy.  

At that time the theory of light in the form of waves had proved unsuccessful in explaining the theory of photoelectric effect.  For this Einstein suggested that light occurs in the form of packets of photons.  For the photon theory of light and Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize.

In recent times a new dimension has been added to quantum theory.  This new theory is even more mysterious.  According to this theory, quantum objects exhibit multiple behaviors simultaneously.  This is because they simultaneously exist in infinite parallel universes.

The quantum theory Concept

In 1924, Satyendra Nath Bose proposed a completely new method to explain Planck’s law of radiation.  He envisioned light as a gas (now called a photon gas) of massless particles.  Bose was successful in demonstrating that gas particles behave in a completely different statistic due to their indistinguishable nature rather than obeying the classical laws of Boltsmann statistics.  

By applying Bose’s theoretical logic to particles other than photons, Einstein was able to demonstrate that they followed the same statistics developed by Bose.  It is now called Bose–Einstein statistics after the names of Bose and Einstein.

Revolutionary Discoveries in Quantum Physics

The three-year period from January 1925 to January 1928 saw a sudden influx of new discoveries in the field of quantum theory.  In 1925, Wolfgang Pauli gave his exclusion principle, according to which no two electrons can remain in the same quantum state.  

In the same year Werner Heisenberg together with Max Born and Pascal Jordan discovered Matrix Mechanics.  In 1926, Erwin Schrödinger proposed an alternative theory for the arrangement of the quantum world, which was named wave mechanics.

In 1920, Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac proposed that electrons obey a new statistic.  This is called the Fermi-Dirac statistics. Electrons belong to a group of particles called fermions. protons, neutrons, etc., that make up matter are all fermions, whose spin is quasi-integral.  In contrast, bosons (photons, helium atoms, alpha particles, mesons, gravitons, etc. are all bosons) have an integer spin (including zero) and obey the Bose–Einstein statistics.

Uncertainty Principle

For nearly 70 years, wave-particle duplicity has been explained on the basis of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, another key aspect of quantum theory.  This theory was propounded by Werner Heisenberg in 1927. It is impossible to accurately measure the position and momentum of any particle at a time.   

According to the uncertainty principle, measurements in the quantitative world have an inherent indeterminacy which is a fundamental aspect of quantum physics.  According to recent tests, the root cause behind the visible wave-particle duplicity during tests is a process called entanglement.

According to the idea of ​​entanglement, objects in the quantum world are not independent of each other if they interact with each other or have come into existence through the same process.  

They attach to each other or become integral.  Thus, a change in one object causes a change in another.  This also happens when the objects are very far away from each other.  It was named Spooky Action at a Distance by Albert Einstein.

This process can also be found in superconductors.  This may also explain the fact why objects have mass.  Through this, particles can be transported from one place to another without physically moving them in the future, 

which is called teleportation.  The first teleportation of a quantum state took place in 1998, and in the future, scientists are trying to integrate more and more particles, different types of particles, and larger particles.

Uses of Integration

In future, through integration, we can get 100% secure way of communication.  Quantum cryptography is capable of sending keys (mw4h) to encrypted computer networks.  

Through integration, success can also be achieved in making working quantum computers in the future.  Because quantum particles can exist in multiple states at the same time, they can perform multiple calculations at the same time.  Future quantum computers will be able to multiply 300-digit numbers in a matter of seconds.  The same calculation can be completed by a conventional computer in several years.

Quantum Gravity

Three of the four fundamental forces of nature are well understood by quantum theory, but there is a problem with gravity.  Gravity works on a very large scale and quantum theory has not yet reached there,

A number of strange theories have been put forward to link gravity with quantum theory, some of which involve the fabrication of space-time with random quantum fluctuations.  It contains many infinitely small black holes called foam.  At the time of the Big Bang, this foam was prevalent throughout the universe.  This influenced space-time, which later led to the formation of large stars and galaxies.

In recent times, the most famous quantum gravity theory states that particles and forces in the universe are developed by the vibrations of small loops or strings.  These strings or loops are about 10-35 meters long.  

Another theory states that space and time are separate from each other at the smallest levels.  This happens because of spin networks.  Recently another theory has been propounded which is called double special relativity.  

This theory refutes Einstein’s one universal constant, the speed of light, and speaks of another constant at the microscopic level.  This controversial theory also talks about gravity, expansion and invisible energy.  

In this way many theories have been propounded in recent times, to test which physicists are doing many tests so that different theories can be tested.

Future Tchnological Possibilities

By using atoms and other atomic particles that obey the laws of quantum physics, it is possible to develop many advanced technologies in the future.  

Scientists have developed a state of matter called a Bose-Einstein or fermionic condensate by cooling atoms to near absolute zero temperatures.  Bose-Einstein condensate has been used to make such laser rays, which in the future can be made such superconductors that will work even at ordinary temperatures.

Leave a Comment