The term “ecology” was coined by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel in 1866; ecological thought is derived from established currents in philosophy, particularly from ethics and politics. However, the phrase was generally coined by the German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1869), who was the first to fully describe it and use it widely in his publications. (father of ecology)
Father of ecology :
- The father of the term ecology or ecology – Ernest Haeckel.
- Father of Indian Ecology – Ramdev Mishra.
- The smallest unit of ecology – organism.
- The largest unit of ecology – is the biosphere.
- Ecosystem or ecosystem = biological community + physical environment.
- Who coined the term ecosystem – A.G.Tensley.
- How many types of the ecosystem are there – Two.
- Fields, dams, and reservoirs come in which area of the ecosystem – in the artificial area.
- In which part of the ecosystem do the sea, river, and grassland come – in the natural area.
- In any food chain, each organism maintains its own definite position, it is called – nutritional level.
- The maximum number of nutrient levels a series can have is – 6.
- How much energy is transmitted from one nutrient level to another in any given chain – only 10%.
- Who gave the 10% law of energy – Lydman. It was first introduced by Reiter in 1868.
Who is the father of the ecosystem?
The term ecosystem was invented in 1935 by Arthur Tansley, a British “ecologist”, to describe the circulatory system established by the biocenosis (collections of living beings) and their protoplasm, or the environment in which they exist. went. Which became ecology, and the science of ecosystems.
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AG used the term ecology for the first time. A scientist named Tensile did it in the year 1935. Ecology is the creation, function of the organisms of the communities and the interrelationship of their environment. Every
Ecosystem has two main components–
- (A) Biotic Components
(B) Abiotic Components
(A) Biotic Components:
Those organisms which make their own food and do not depend on others are called autotrophs. Other organisms that are always dependent on others for food are called heterotrophs.
There are three types of biological components –
- 1. Producers
Green plants are considered the primary producers. Their function is to produce food and store energy for the entire ecosystem. For example, algae, trees, huts, herbaceous plants.
Under this, those organisms come which get their food from the primary producer or by eating other organisms.
Heterogeneous property is found in all consumers, green plants are called primary producers and heterotrophic consumer animals are called secondary producers.
Consumers are of the following types-
(a) Primary Consumers: They are herbivores. For example, cow, goat, deer, rabbit, grasshopper, rat, etc.
(b) Secondary Consumers: Organisms that obtain their food by eating first-class consumers. For example, vegetarian fish by carnivorous fish and mouse by the cat.
(c) Tertiary Consumers: They are carnivorous animals that get their food by eating second-class consumers. For example, a frog is eaten by a snake.
(d) High carnivores: Those organisms that eat all categories of carnivores by killing them, but no one can eat them. For example, lion, cheetah.
Some animals are both vegetarian and carnivorous, they are called omnivores. Like human.
These are the biotic components that usually decompose the body of producers and consumers after their death.
Example: Saprophytic fungi and bacterial decomposers keep on cleaning the earth by decomposing dead plants and animals, hence they are called scavengers of nature.
(B) Abiotic Components:
Under these comes the non-living environment which controls various biotic components. For example, water, air, temperature, salts, gases, electricity, light, etc.